What is Nuclear Power Plant and How it works?

Knowledge: Get to know About The Nuclear Power Plant And How it works? Read Now


What is a Nuclear Power Plant?

A Nuclear power plant is a thermal power station which generates electrical energy from heat and at basically a factory for making lots of electricity enough to power a city of around 2 million people's nuclear energy is the world's second-largest low-carbon source of electricity approximately 10 percent of the global electricity is being generated by nuclear reactors as of April 2020 there are 440 operable power reactors in the world with a combined electrical capacity of 390 gigawatts by far the largest nuclear electricity producers are the United States with 809 359 gigawatts per hour of nuclear electricity.

How Nuclear Power Plant Works?

In 2019 the nuclear power plant consists of numerous buildings and facilities the most important of which are as follows this is the containment building where the nuclear reactors are housed it is made of 

  • Two meters thick reinforced concrete inside the containment building
  • A large tank called calandria which is the heart of the nuclear reactors
  • There  is a turbine generator building it houses the turbine and generator
  • There is a controlling building for monitor and control the nuclear reactors 

Understand the proper working-

The fuel is naturally occurring uranium that process into small pellets then the pellet are sealed into metal tubes which are welded to form a fuel bundle the fuel bundles are then inserted in a large tank called calandria which is the heart of the nuclear reactor typically more than 200 of these rods are bundled together to form a fuel assembly

A reactor core is typically made up of a couple of hundred assemblies in order to allow nuclear fission to proceed in a controlled manner a control rod exists the control rod can be moved up and down to control the fission rate of uranium.

How it Generates Electricity

The Nuclear power plant produces electricity using the heat that comes from splitting uranium atoms in a process called nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is a nuclear radioactive decay process in which the hitting neutrons on the uranium atoms then the uranium atoms split into two and it releases three neutrons each process releases two uranium atoms and three neutrons.

A chain reaction of atom-splitting and ensure that there is a constant source of heat meaning that it generates lots of heat this heat is used to convert electricity.

Let's explore how they produce electricity from heat

The calandria vessel is a cylindrical vessel housing the lots of lattice tubes which are filled with the heavy water moderator that flows around the fuel bundles heavy water is found in all water rivers and ocean on average one out of every seven thousand drops of water is heavy water it is ten percent heavier than ordinary water because it incorporates a heavy form of hydrogen called deuterium

During the nuclear fission process, the heavy water flows around the fuel bundles a chain reaction of splitting atoms releases a tremendous amount of heat into the heavy water then the heated heavy water flows through a closed-loop system that's pumped through the reactor to a set of the steam generator where it transfers the heat to ordinary water 

When that water boils it turns into steam the steam is transported at high pressure through pipes to a large turbine where pushes the blade and turns a shaft connected to a rotor in the generator causing the rotor to spin

What is a spinning rotor?

The spinning rotor is a large electromagnet that producing rotating magnetic fields due to this process electricity is generated then it is transferred to the transmission line.